On March 31, 2020, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Part 2 of their Safe Affordable Fuel Efficient Vehicles Rule (SAFER Part 2) for passenger cars and light trucks. Within the rule, EPA amends carbon dioxide standards for model years 2021 and later, and NHTSA amends fuel economy standards for model year 2021 and sets new fuel economy standards for model years 2022-26. Rather than freezing the standards as proposed, the rule will require a 1.5 percent annual improvement in vehicle emissions and efficiency. Environmental groups have already voiced objections to the agency’s cost-benefit analysis, among other issues. Once the final rule is published in the Federal Register, it is expected to be subject to litigation in federal court.