Sidley Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Report

Volume 3, No. 49

Federal
<lt;BR>NGO Sues to Block Offshore Hydraulic Fracturing Permits.
The Environmental Defense Center filed suit in federal court alleging the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) issued 51 permits authorizing hydraulic fracturing and well acidizing off the coast of California without complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). According to the suit, BSEE should have conducted an environmental impact statement under NEPA to review the potential risks of offshore hydraulic fracturing, including how this offshore development would potentially impact endangered species, such as certain whale species and the southern sea otter.

Forest Service Finalizes Plan for Oil and Gas Leasing in Pawnee National Grasslands. The Forest Service issued the final Environmental Impact Statement for issuing oil and gas leases for the Pawnee National Grasslands in eastern Colorado. The Forest Service leases will allow companies to access portions of the Niobrara Shale Play by horizontally drilling under the federal lands, not by placing well pads on top of the 193,000 acre reserve. While industry generally supports this compromise approach, environmental groups vowed to file formal protests against the leases, claiming that industrial activity will diminish the area’s use for birding and threaten other wildlife.

States

Members of Ohio NGO Files Proposed Class Action Claiming State Oil and Gas Act Violates Rights to Local Self Governance. Members of a group known as Mothers Against Drilling in Our Neighborhoods (MADION), an environmental group that helped organize Broadview Heights, Ohio’s charter amendment banning hydraulic fracturing, filed a class action lawsuit against Governor John Kasich and two oil companies claiming that the Ohio Oil and Gas Act violates residents’ right to “self governance.” Bass Energy Company and Ohio Valley Energy, both named as defendants, have a pending lawsuit challenging Broadview Heights’ ban. The companies argue that the Ohio Oil and Gas Act preempts Broadview Heights’ “community bill of rights” charter amendment prohibiting hydraulic fracturing. MADION’s suit, however, contends that state preemption of local laws unconstitutionally violates the right of town residents to make their own laws. The Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund, which worked with Broadview Heights to enact its ban – and with many other municipalities to pass similar charter amendments – asserts that similar class action suits would be filed throughout the country.

Business

OPEC Holds Steady, Potentially Impacting U.S. Shale Development. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced that it would not cut production in light of falling oil prices, sending oil prices down further. With Brent Crude prices reaching below $70 per barrel, and West Texas Intermediate down to $66 per barrel, the trade press is reporting that North American oil and gas companies are re-evaluating their strategies in those shale plays that have higher development costs. Some analysts are predicting a material drop in exploration and production expenditures, with independent producers potentially being hardest hit due to higher leverage and an inability to reduce production without financial difficulties. A Barclay’s research report estimated that, with OPEC inaction, U.S. oil production could drop by as much as 1 million barrels per day to keep prices from declining further.

Weatherford to sell fluids unit to Lubrizol. Oilfield services company, Weatherford International, announced that it will sell off its chemistry and drilling fluids business to Lubrizol for $825 million. The business focuses on creating the fluids required to drill and stimulate oil and gas wells. Weatherford noted that the sale is part of a continuing strategy to pay down debt. For Ohio-based specialty chemical company Lubrizol, which was purchased by Berkshire Hathaway in 2011, the acquisition gains it entry into the highly competitive oil and gas services business. The companies are expected to complete the sale before the end of 2014.

Research

Utah Universities: Oil and Gas Revenue Could Support Land Takeover. Economists at the University of Utah, Utah State University, and Weber State University released a study of the costs and benefits of the state’s attempt to takeover federal lands. According to the study, Utah could recoup management costs, or even turn a profit, from oil and gas drilling revenues. Utah’s legislature passed a bill in 2012 demanding that the federal government relinquish 31.2 million acres of land to the state, alleging that Utah is entitled to these lands under the 1894 Enabling Act and that they are poorly managed by the federal government.

If you have any questions regarding this Report, please contact us.

SHARE
EmailShare

Sidley Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Report

Federal

EPA publishes final amendments to Subpart W regulations and issues proposal to further expand the reporting requirements. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published final amendments to its Subpart W rules governing reporting of GHG emissions from oil and natural gas production, and natural gas transmission, distribution and storage. Among other changes, EPA is phasing out an alternative calculation method known as best available monitoring methods, thereby requiring operators to install new monitoring equipment during the next year in order to comply with Subpart W. The final Subpart W rule will also require operators to report emissions in metric tons of each GHG separately, including methane, as well a facility’s total GHG emissions in tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. EPA also proposed further amendments to Subpart W that would require reporting of GHG emissions from additional gathering and boosting systems, completions and workovers of oil wells using hydraulic fracturing, and blowdowns (the release of gas from transmission pipelines for the purpose of reducing system pressure or complete depressurization) of natural gas transmission pipelines.

EPA seeks an extension of judicial stay in challenge to hazardous air pollution regulations for oil and gas sector. EPA is asking the D.C. Circuit to extend until January 30, 2015 a stay in a challenge to EPA’s national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the oil and gas sector. EPA previously agreed to reconsider certain aspects of the rule, but is requesting more time to define the scope of a revised rule and how that might affect current litigation. Last month, EPA announced in its 2014 unified agenda of pending regulations that it plans to propose a reconsideration rule by May 2015 and to finalize the rule by May 2016.

States

Illinois: Court denies preliminary injunction in challenge to state hydraulic fracturing regulations. An Illinois Circuit Court judge denied the plaintiffs’ motion for a preliminary injunction to halt implementation of Illinois’ hydraulic fracturing regulations, holding the plaintiffs had failed to prove they would suffer irreparable harm from the regulations. The plaintiffs, who include a number of landowners in southern Illinois and the advocacy group Southern Illinoisans Against Fracturing Our Environment, allege the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) failed to follow proper procedures when it proposed and accepted comment on draft hydraulic fracturing regulations and, by doing so, deprived them of an opportunity to participate in the rulemaking process. IDNR disputes the allegation, contending the agency satisfied the requirements of the Illinois Administrative Procedure Act. In the absence of a preliminary injunction, IDNR says it will begin processing applications for hydraulic fracturing permits.

Colorado: Colorado Oil and Gas Association challenges the City of Broomfield’s hydraulic fracturing ban. On November 24, 2014, the Colorado Oil and Gas Association (COGA) filed suit in state court challenging the 5-year ban on hydraulic fracturing recently approved by the City of Broomfield, Colorado. COGA contends that the ban is preempted by Colorado’s oil and gas laws. The practical effect of the ban is limited to date, as Broomfield has reached a separate agreement with Sovereign Operating Co.—the only company with active plans to develop wells in Broomfield—that will allow some hydraulic fracturing activities to continue. Similar local bans on hydraulic fracturing in Lafayette, Fort Collins and Longmont have recently been struck down by Colorado courts on preemption grounds.

Maryland agencies conclude that hydraulic fracturing can be conducted safely. A recent draft report published by the Maryland Department of the Environment and Department of Natural Resources concludes that the potential risks from hydraulic fracturing can be managed by a combination of best practices and agency enforcement. The report recommends new regulations, new legislation to expand enforcement authority, a severance tax to support state actions related to shale development, new monitoring programs and comprehensive region-wide gas development plans. A final report, along with proposed hydraulic fracturing regulations, is expected to be released after the Maryland Marcellus shale Advisory Commission reviews and comments on the draft report. There is a de facto moratorium on hydraulic fracturing in Maryland, pending finalization of the report.

SHARE
EmailShare

Sidley Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Report

Volume 3, No. 47

Federal

Forest Service reverses ban and allows limited oil and gas leasing in National Forest. On November 18, the U.S. Forest Service reversed its proposal to ban the use of hydraulic fracturing completely in the George Washington National Forest. Instead, the land and resource management plan for the forest will allow oil and gas leasing to continue on approximately 10,000 acres. The 1.1 million acre forest, the largest national forest on the east coast and a popular place for campers, hikers and hunters, contains the headwaters of the Potomac River which supplies water to population centers downstream, including Washington, D.C. Only a handful of wells have been drilled in the forest since the 1990s, but the Bureau of Land Management has estimated that there is a high potential for oil and gas to be found within the forest. The Forest Service currently leases approximately 5.3 million of its 193 million acres for oil and gas development.

States

Boulder, CO extends moratorium on oil and gas drilling. Boulder County extended its drilling moratorium until mid-2018, formally extending the ban that originally went into effect in 2012. County commissioners approved the extension as they await the results of a study that will evaluate the air and water impacts of oil and gas drilling. The $12 million study, funded by the National Science Foundation and led by the University of Colorado, is not expected to be completed until 2017.

Pennsylvania representative expands investigation of waste management practices. Representative Matthew Cartwright (D-Pa.) expanded his investigation into how states are handling waste from hydraulic fracturing operations, contacting regulators in Ohio and West Virginia, in addition to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection he contacted last month. Rep. Cartwright sits on the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee. He has previously proposed legislation to roll back the environmental exemptions for oil and gas waste. Rep. Cartwright asked the states for three years of data on investigations and complaints, along with details on state permitting and monitoring of waste haulers.

Litigation

Judge denies injunction to block Illinois hydraulic fracturing permits. On November 21, a Madison County judge denied an injunction in the first lawsuit to challenge the Illinois fracking rules, finding that environmental groups and landowners failed to demonstrate they were in immediate danger. Following publication of the rules in mid-November, southern Illinois landowners, along with environmental groups, filed suit in state court seeking an injunction against the publication of new regulations that would allow the Illinois Department of Natural Resources to issue hydraulic fracturing permits. The suit raises various procedural claims, including that the state allegedly failed to provide the required notice for public hearings, did not consider certain studies when developing the regulations, and failed to respond to public questions during a public hearing.

NGOs file suit challenging permitting of waste disposal facilities. On November 19, two environmental groups filed suit in Franklin County Court challenging approvals by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (DNR) for approximately 20 waste disposal facilities which handle wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations. The complaint alleges Ohio DNR bypassed the official rulemaking process required to permit such facilities. The facilities have been authorized by temporary permits issued by DNR pending new final rules to be issued by the department that will further regulate these disposal sites. The complaint challenges the temporary authorizations and seeks an injunction compelling DNR to implement permanent regulations before allowing these disposal facilities to accept hydraulic fracturing wastes.

If you have any questions regarding this Report, please contact us.

SHARE
EmailShare

Sidley Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Report

Volume 3, No. 46

Federal

Fish & Wildlife endangered species listing could further delay permitting for oil and gas development on federal lands in western U.S. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) formally listed the Gunnison sage grouse as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The decision established a 1.4 million acre area of critical habitat for the ground-dwelling bird in southwest Colorado and southeast Utah. Federal agencies must consult with FWS before authorizing any activity that could “adversely modify” critical habitat, meaning potentially more delays for oil and gas companies seeking permits on federal lands. The “threatened” listing decision drew criticism both from environmental groups, who were pushing for an “endangered” designation, and by effected states and industry, who believe that voluntary conservation measures have stabilized the grouse’s population. FWS stated that it would issue a Section 4(d) rule that provided additional flexibility to oil and gas operations that previously implemented approved voluntary conservation plans. WildEarth Guardians has already announced it would file suit to overturn the “threatened” listing decision and force an “endangered” designation. An “endangered” designation, which FWS previously proposed in January 2013, would impose even more restrictions on oil and gas operations within Colorado and Utah.

States

North Dakota delays railway safety regulations. North Dakota’s Industrial Commission stated that it will reopen the public comment period on proposed regulations governing the shipment of crude oil by railway. As proposed, the regulations would require shippers to lower the Reid vapor pressure of oil transported by railroad tanker to 13.7 psi. Compliance would likely require companies to heat the crude in order to flash off and capture volatile organic compounds like propane and butane. A spokesman for the Department of Mineral Resources stated that there were concerns with the accuracy of some of the vapor pressure testing data but that these concerns would not likely change the content of the regulations. The Industrial Commission scheduled a December 11, 2014 meeting to consider the draft regulations.

Suit seeks to block Illinois hydraulic fracturing permits. Environmental groups filed suit in state court seeking an injunction against the publication of new regulations that would allow the Illinois Department of Natural Resources to issue hydraulic fracturing permits. The regulations were recently adopted on November 6, 2014, more than a year after the legislature passed the Hydraulic Fracturing Regulatory Act. The suit raises various procedural claims, including that the state allegedly failed to provide 20 days’ notice for public hearings, did not consider certain studies when developing the regulations, and failed to respond to public questions during a public hearing.

NGOs challenge California hydraulic fracturing permits. A group of environmental groups filed suit challenging 214 permits issued by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR) authorizing the use of hydraulic fracturing, alleging DOGGR failed to comply with the California Environmental Quality Act before issuing the permits. DOGGR is in the process of conducting an overall environmental assessment of hydraulic fracturing, as required by California’s recent hydraulic fracturing legislation, S.B.4, however, the plaintiffs claim the agency should have performed an environmental review of each individual well site and the cumulative impacts of drilling in California. The complaint asserts hydraulic fracturing uses significant amounts of water at a time where water supplies in California are strained, and that DOGGR did not conduct the requisite analysis of potential air impacts. The plaintiffs seek an injunction barring drilling until DOGGR performs the individual well site reviews.

Business

Halliburton to purchase Baker Hughes. Halliburton Co., the world’s second-biggest provider of oilfield services, has agreed to buy Baker Hughes Inc. According to a joint statement, Baker Hughes’ shareholders will receive 1.12 Halliburton shares plus $19 in cash for each share they own. Halliburton announced plans to finance the deal through a combination of cash on hand and debt financing. The combined companies would control approximately 40 percent of the market for hydraulic fracturing services. The purchase remains subject to review by the U.S. Department of Justice.

If you have any questions regarding this Report, please contact us.

SHARE
EmailShare

Sidley Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Report

Volume 3, No. 45

States

Illinois: Administrative rulemaking commission approves new regulations authorizing permits to develop wells using hydraulic fracturing. On November 6, 2014, the Illinois Joint Commission for Administrative Rules (JCAR) approved new rules to implement the state’s Hydraulic Fracturing Regulatory Act. The final rule will allow the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to grant permits to develop wells using hydraulic fracturing. The final rule is similar to the most recent draft released by the DNR in August. The JCAR approval marks the conclusion of a year-long regulatory process following the State’s passage of the Act in 2013.

California: Ballot measures to ban hydraulic fracturing pass in two of three counties. Voters in San Benito County and Mendocino County passed local moratoriums on hydraulic fracturing while a third measure failed in Santa Barbara County. By a 57 to 43% vote, San Benito voters banned use of hydraulic fracturing along with acid well stimulation and cyclic steam injection. At present there are 26 operating wells in San Benito County, none of which have used these well completion methods. Mendocino County’s vote passed by a margin of 62 to 38%, but is largely symbolic as there are no oil and gas wells in Mendocino County. By contrast, by a margin of 63 to 37%, Santa Barbara County, which has a large number of active wells, voted down the proposed ban. Santa Barbara also currently has more than 300 permit applications pending, all of which would involve cyclic steam injection.

Ohio: Municipal voters reject 3 of 4 ballot measures to ban hydraulic fracturing. Voters in Ohio largely rejected local measures to ban hydraulic fracturing in last week’s election. Residents in Youngstown voted for the fourth time to defeat a ballot measure to ban hydraulic fracturing. Local bans were also defeated in Gates Mill and Kent. Voters in Athens, Ohio did approve a measure to ban hydraulic fracturing as part of a community bill of rights which also enumerated residents’ rights to clear air and water.

Texas: City of Denton passes initiative to ban hydraulic fracturing; faces immediate lawsuit. The City of Denton became the first city in Texas to ban hydraulic fracturing within city limits. Residents in Denton, which is located in the Barnett Shale and currently has more than 200 operating gas wells, voted 59% to 41% in favor of the ban. Denton’s city council had voted down a similar ban proposed last July. The day after the election, the Texas Land Commissioner and the Texas Oil and Gas Association filed separate declaratory judgment actions seeking to overturn the initiative as preempted by state law and contrary to the Texas Constitution. The Texas Oil and Gas Association has also asked the court to issue a preliminary injunction in advance of the ballot measure’s effective date of December of this year.

West Virginia: University establishes field laboratory dedicated to shale gas resources. On November 6, 2014, West Virginia University announced the launch of The Marcellus Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory, which will be dedicated to the long-term evaluation of shale resource development. The program will employ a multidisciplinary team that will be focused on identifying best practices for responsible shale development. The program obtained $11 million in funding over five years from the U.S. Department of Energy.

If you have any questions regarding this Report, please contact us.

SHARE
EmailShare

Sidley Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Report

Volume 3, No. 44

Federal

Interest groups discuss BLM rule with White House. On October 30, environmental groups, including representatives from Sierra Club and the Natural Resources Defense Council, met with officials from the Office of Management and Budget (“OMB”) and the Council on Environmental Quality to discuss a Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) proposed rule to expand regulation of hydraulic fracturing on public lands. Environmental groups believe that BLM must evaluate the proposed rule under the National Environmental Policy Act, while the industry continues to object to the rule as an unnecessary regulation of primarily state operations. If finalized, the rule is expected to require additional public disclosure, increased wellbore integrity requirements and water management plans for wells on public lands. The final rule is presently expected to be released following the November 4 election.

States

California: Three counties weigh voting bans. In this week’s election, three coastal counties in California will be voting on local initiatives to ban the use of hydraulic fracturing. Santa Barbara, San Benito and Monterey are all situated on the Monterey Shale, a deposit believed to contain over 600 million barrels of oil, but none of the counties currently have shale oil development operations, leading some opponents to believe that the vote is unnecessary. Opponents additionally are concerned that the local initiatives will extend to other forms of drilling beyond high volume hydraulic fracturing. Supporters claim the risk to drinking water and the increased threat of earthquakes as among the reasons to vote in favor of the initiatives.

Pennsylvania representative launches investigation of oil and gas waste. Representative Matthew Cartwright (D-Pa.) recently began an investigation of Pennsylvania’s shale oil and gas waste disposal program. In 2013, Rep. Cartwright proposed a related initiative to eliminate the exception for the oil and gas industry from certain hazardous waste requirements, and has stated that he believes that this new investigation will advance that legislation. As an initial step, the investigation will require the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to answer several questions about its regulatory programs by mid-November.

Texas: Denton citizens considering state’s first fracking ban. Voting is ongoing for a hydraulic fracturing ban in Denton, Texas. Located above the Barnett Shale, Denton has numerous wells within the city limits. Last year, Denton passed a 1,200 foot setback requirement, following complaints from homeowners about increased noise, dust and traffic. At least one company contended it was exempt from the setback regulation, arguing it was grandfathered because it had commenced drilling before Denton enacted the setback requirement. Opponents of drilling are now seeking an outright ban. If passed, it would be the first jurisdiction to enact a ban on hydraulic fracturing within Texas. Other Texas cities have restricted drilling, but none has completely banned the activity within the city limits.

Business

Kinder Morgan schedules merger vote. Shareholders will vote on the proposed merger between Kinder Morgan Energy Partners, Kinder Morgan Management, and El Paso Pipeline Partners on November 20, 2014, according to SEC filings. If approved, the merger, valued at $44 billion, would be the second largest energy merger in United States history.

Studies

Online journal reports data showing air pollutants above federal limits. The online Journal of Environmental Health has reported that in the vicinity of wells in Arkansas, Colorado, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wyoming, eight chemicals, including benzene and formaldehyde, are present in air quality samples at levels above federal limits. Local volunteers collected the samples near drilling sites and compressors, which were then analyzed by laboratories for the researchers. Industry groups have criticized the report, arguing the local volunteers are not trained objective researchers, but interested stakeholders.

If you have any questions regarding this Report, please contact us.

SHARE
EmailShare

Sidley Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Report

Volume 3, No. 43

Federal

NGOs seek rulemaking to reduce hydraulic fracturing emissions. Over 100 environmental groups signed a petition to the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and Department of the Interior seeking a rulemaking that would address emissions of air pollutants from hydraulic fracturing operations. According to the groups, hydraulic fracturing emits methane, a greenhouse gas, as well as volatile organic compounds and other hazardous air pollutants that the petition alleges are threatening the health of those living near drilling operations. The petition states that EPA has the power to regulate these emissions under the Clean Air Act, and Interior could regulate emissions on public lands, but did not suggest any specific methods, emission limitations or control technologies.

Railroads protest STB disclosure requirements. Several railroads criticized a U.S. Surface Transportation Board (“STB”) decision requiring the companies to publicly disclose weekly updates on delays, including several categories of data such as the number of trains delayed by more than six hours, and system-wide train speeds. The STB ordered the weekly updates after an April hearing where North Dakota farmers complained that crude oil shipments were receiving priority over agricultural shipments, delaying the delivery of grain commodities for weeks. The first round of disclosures showed more grain cars sitting idle for at least 48 hours more than oil tankers. Spokesmen for the railroads, however, said that the weekly disclosures imposed significant burdens on the companies without doing anything to improve service. They also noted that cars may frequently be idled for several days but still reach their destinations on time.

States

New York requests that North Dakota reduce crude volatility. The Commissioners of New York’s State Department of Environmental Conservation and Department of Transportation issued a letter to North Dakota requesting that the state require companies to remove volatile gases from Bakken crude oil before being loaded into rail tankers for shipments. The Commissioners claim the regulations are necessary to protect residents living near railroad tracks, citing last year’s explosion and fire in Quebec. New York has seen an increase in crude oil rail traffic as Bakken crude is shipped to refineries in Canada and the Mid-Atlantic. The request came after a New York investigation into the safety of crude oil shipments recommended the removal of dissolved gases in light crude. In response, a spokesman for the North Dakota Petroleum Council stated that oil companies have already invested between $2.5 and $5 billion on facilities to condition the oil for shipment and that the oil meets all regulatory requirements. The Council also noted that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration has declined to require the kinds of measures sought by New York.

New York decision may come in late 2014. New York Governor Andrew Cuomo stated during a gubernatorial debate that he could make a decision on whether to lift the state’s moratorium on hydraulic fracturing by the end of the year. His statement gave no indication of what that decision would be, as Governor Cuomo stated that he was still waiting on an opinion from the Departments of Health and Environmental Conservation. Those departments are scheduled to complete their review and issue a report on the potential impacts of using hydraulic fracturing to produce oil and gas from shale resources by the end of 2014. Governor Cuomo’s opponent in the upcoming election, Westchester County Executive Rob Astorino, has promised to end the moratorium within 90 days of taking office.

Business

Tesoro Logistics buys into natural gas market. Tesoro Logistics, a master limited partnership with crude oil and refined product assets, announced that it will buy QEP Resources’ natural gas business for $2.5 billion. The QEP Resources acquisition will be Tesoro Logistics’ first foray into natural gas since it was spun off from Tesoro Corporation in 2011. The deal will add 2,000 miles of natural gas pipeline with 2.9 million cubic feet of natural gas throughput capacity per day, as well natural gas gathering and processing assets held by QEP Field Services and QEP Midstream Partners.

Shell Midstream issues initial public offering. Shell Midstream Partners, a master limited partnership, launched its IPO, offering 37.5 million shares on the New York Stock exchange. The shares, estimated to sell for between $19 and $21 per share, represent just over 27% of the company with Royal Dutch Shell subsidiaries owning the remainder. The company’s assets include two crude and two refined products pipelines in the Gulf Coast.

Weatherford announces further divestitures to cut costs. Oil field service company, Weatherford International, announced that it will likely divest two more non-core business units before the end of the year. The company is in the midst of shedding non-core businesses to pay down over $7 billion in debt. Weatherford previously sold off its land drilling and work-over operations in Venezuela and Russia to Rosneft, as well as its pipelines and specialty services business to Baker Hughes earlier this year. The sales come on top of cutting nearly 9,300 jobs over the past two years and closing 64 worldwide offices. At the end of the turnaround, planned for the end of 2015, Weatherford will focus on four core areas: formation evaluation, well construction, well completion and production.

Studies

Researchers claim to track fracturing fluids in the environment. A group of U.S. and French scientists believe they found a way to track hydraulic fracturing fluid that remains underground using two chemical tracers. After well stimulation, only about 40% of the fracturing fluid returns to the surface. The fate of the remaining fluid is not well known. Researchers, however, published the results of a field study in Environmental Science & Technology showing that the fluids can be tracked through boron and lithium released from shale formations during fracturing. The researchers claim that the tracers could be used to determine whether sources of drinking water been influenced by fracturing fluid.

If you have any questions regarding this Report, please contact us.

SHARE
EmailShare
SHARE
EmailShare